The first phase of the Korean War was very active, with Australian troops continually moving in both advance and retreat, so trench digging was minimal. As Winter approached, the troops required better protection against the severe cold. Soldiers issued with standard equipment used in the Second World War started acquiring items from the US and British military to protect against frostbite and other injuries related to cold weather.
Conditions worsened during the static phase of the war when the Australians remained in the area around the 38th parallel. Defensive positions, command posts and living quarters were established in dugouts or underground bunkers, known as hootches, often connected by communication trenches as close as 200 metres and up to two kilometres apart.
The best deep, warm bunkers were used as command posts, constructed of Oregon rafters and corrugated iron, built up with sandbags and mesh. The worst were barely habitable, cold, cramped, wet and dirty, with vermin and lice for company causing disease and discomfort.
Most manual labour activities were conducted at night and four to six men might be lucky to sleep in the cramped, poorly ventilated bunkers during the day. Patrols were despatched at any time and in all types of weather. The bunkers often housed homemade heaters, called choofers used for cooking, warmth and to melt the snow for drinking water and washing. Made from metal drums, choofers were fuelled by petrol or solid hydrocarbon-based ‘hexamine’ tablets.
The summer monsoonal rains brought a new range of problems. Continually damp clothing posed a major problem and illnesses spread easily. Many soldiers developed “trench feet”, a condition similar to frost-bite, caused by the feet being immersed in mud and water for prolonged periods of time.
Other health threats in the bunkers were associated with smoke from fuel burning in the choofers and cigarettes. Soot and grime would build-up, covering everything from equipment to clothing, necks and collars. The air quality was further worsened by the use of pesticides to control the breeding of mosquitoes during the wet season. Artillery fire was common across the front and while the bunkers appeared to provide protection from the weather, enemy shells and mortar fire, torrential rain sometimes caused bunkers to collapse.
The 3 RAR Battalion Diaries for the 7th July 1953 mention the problems associated with rain:
“Seepage through the walls of dugouts and bunkers was considerable, causing, in many cases, the floor to become a lake. The use of
corrugated iron for revetting proved unsuitable as the weight of the water and the loosened earth pushing on the sheets caused them to collapse. However, this was overcome, to a certain extent, by punching holes in the sheets to allow rainwater to drain into the trench. Arc mesh has proved to be by far the best revetting material.”
Australian soldiers in Korea lived and fought in a difficult environment with an extreme climate. Eventually, they were issued with improved protective clothing, but the freezing winters and hot drenching summers will always be well remembered…
1 - The HMAS Armidale was attacked and sunk by Japanese Aircraft (1943) - The Last C-130 Hercules ‘Southern Service’ courier took off from Laverton (1992) - The Battle of Hat dich in Southern Vietnam begins (1968) - The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment is presented with US Presidential Unit Citation for its action at Kapyong, Korea (1951) - The HAM Bataan and Warramunga participated on the withdrawal of UN troops and civilian refuges from chinnampo, North Korea (1950) - The HMAS Stalwart carried out an emergency re-supply mission to the Australian national Antarctic research expedition at sub-Antarctic Macquarie island (1985) - The Siege of Tobruk ends after 242 days of encirclement (1941) - War is declared on Japan (1941) - The eradication of the smallpox virus is certified, making smallpox the first of only two diseases that have been driven to extinction (1979) - The battle of Amboga River begins (1942) - The HMAS Newcastle is commissioned (1993) - HMAS Arunta is commissioned (1998) - The HMAS Teal intercepted and engaged two small Indonesian vessel carrying saboteurs in the Singapore strait during Indonesian Confrontation(1964) - The ships HMA Napier and Nepla conducted a shore bombardment of enemy positions on the Arakan coast, Burma, in support of the 74th Indian Brigade (1944) - HMAS Nestor sinks German U-boat U127 in the Atlantic Ocean (1941) - In response to China's Second Phase Offensive in the Korea War, U.S. President Harry S. Truman declares a limited state of emergency(1962) - The HMAS Qiuberon rescued 31 Chinese sailors from the merchant vessel, SS Tuscany which had run aground on a reef 300 mules north-west of Bornerp (1962) - The battle for Artillery, Bougainville begins(1944) - The last of the Australian troops evacuate from Anzac(1915) - The battle for Jaffa is over(1917) - The Air Board held its inaugural meeting, even before the Air Force formed(1920) - The Battle of Magdhaba was fought today (1916) - Cyclone Tracey devastates Darwin, during which the Patrol boat HMAS sinks with the loss of two lives(1974) - 37 sqn Hercules make first relief fligh into Darwin after Cyclone Tracey(1974) - The defense of Jerusalem begins(1917) - The Japanese aircraft carrier Hōshō becomes the first purpose built aircraft carrier to be commissioned in the world(1922) - RAAF C-130 begains relief effort after Boxing Day tsunami(2004) - Nothing important happened. - The United States halts heavy bombing campaign of North Vietnam(1972) - test - The year ends forever
1 - The year begins - Manila is captured by Japanese forces, enabling them to control Philippines(1942) - The Battle of Bardia begins(1941) - Australia introduced conscription for military service (1943) - The army landing ship AV1356 Clive Steel came under enemy rocket fire in South Vietnam(1969) - The military board is formed(1905) - HMAS Tobruk bombard North Korean position on the island of Chomi to delay a North Korea invasion of Yongmae do(1952) - The last of Australia combat troops depart from south Korea(1958) - The first contingent of 2nd AIF embarks for the Middle East(1940) - HMAS Arunta evacuate the 2nd AIF from Timor(1943) - C-130s deliver 1 RAR advance party to Mogadishu, Somlia for Operation SOLCAE(1993) - 0 - A detachment of Clearnace Driving Team 1 successfully re-floated the wreck of HMAS Arrow, suunk during Cyclone Tracey with the loss of two lives from under Strokes Hill Wharf in Darwin Harbour(1975) - The Battle of Germas begins(1942) - The Battle of Sanandanda begins(1943) - The Battle of Muar begins(1942) - Gulf War hostilities commence against Iraq(1991) - The battle of Balif begins(1945) -The battle for Nambut Ridge begins(1945) - HMA ships Deloraine, Katoomba and Lithgow sink a Japanese submarine off Darwin(1942) - The Malaysian Government made direct request for Australian troops in Borneo (1965) - The HMAS Patrica Cam is sunk by Japense aircraft off the Wessel island, North Terriorty (1943) - The city of Rabual fall to japanese as they make preparations for Port Moresby(1942) - The battle of Bien-Hoa, South Vietnam begins(1968) - 0 - 1 - 2 - The Battle of Jamuluang, Maylaya begins(1942) - Dunsterforce including hand picked Australia officeers and NCOs; left Bagdad for NW Persia(Iran)(1918) - Major General Sir Edward Hutton arrives in Australia to assume duties as GOC CMF(1902) - The Vanguard of the 6th Diversion enter Derna, North Africa(1941) - The 1st Australia Corps begin their return from the Middle East(1942) - The TET offensive begins in South Vietnam(1968) - 0
0 - The HMAS Carins is commissioned(1974) - 0 - 0 - 0 - Japanese defeated at Wau(1943) - 1 SAS squad arrived in Brunei as first Australian combat unitt to serve in Borneo during confrontation(1945) - C-130 evacuated Australians from Tehran during Iranian Revolution(1979) - The Battle for Singapore begins(1942) - 0 - The HMAS Melbourne and the HMAS Voyager collided off the New South Wales coast(1964) - An Advance party of ASC2 arrives in Rwanda(1995) - 2AIF began arriving in Egypt(1940) - 0 - The battle for Chuam-Ni, Korea begins (1951) - The City of Singapore falls(1942) - The Battle for Barara, Bougainville begins(1945) - The battle for Long Hai, South Vietnam begins (1970) -The Australian Army's first oversea deployment sails for Soth Africa(1903) - The Japanese begin their raid on Darwin(1942) - The Battle for Koepany, West Timor begins(1942) - The city of Jericho,Palestine is captured(1918) - The HMAS Glenelg is commissioned(2008) - The HMAS Sheean is commissioned(2001 - The Coalition forces invades Iraq(1991) - The Centurion tanks of the 1st armoured regiment arrives in South Vietnam(1968) - The Janszoon voyage of 1605–06 becomes the first European expedition to set foot on Australia(1606) - The Defence Act become Law(1904) - The Gulf war ends against Iraq(1991) - A leap day was made to ensure that an additional 24 hours are built into the calendar to ensure that it stays in line with the Earth's movement around the Sun
0 - The Commonwealth Miltary and Naval forces were created (1901) - The first Australian submarines, AE1 and AE2, sailed from England on their maiden voyage to Australia. They arrived in Sydeny on 24 May 1914 having set a new long-distance record for a submarine transit (1914) - NSW contingent sail from Sydney to Sudan (1885) - The HMAS Yarra is sunk by Japanese forces with only 13 survivors from a crew of 151(1942) - The battle for Waitavolo, New Britain begins (1945) - HMAS Moresby (II) commissioned at Newcastle state Dockyard, NSW. She was the first ship of the RAN to be designed specifically for the hydrographic surveying and oceanographic role (1964) - The Battle for Maehwa-san, Korea begins (1951) - The Battle for for Maprik, PNG begins (1943) - Allied forces in Java surrender to Japanese (1942) - The Australia Army Postal corps is formed (1916) - First Australian contingent to UNTAG in Namibia (1989) - The 3 RAR capture hill 410 in Korea (1951) - The General Order 10 notified disbandment of colonial miltary forces of newly formed Australian Army (1901) - The HMAS Watson was commissioned (1945) - The AIF depart Egypt for Western Front (1916) - The HMAS Coonawarra was commissioned (1970) - Battle for Bapauma,France begins (1917) - The 16 Bde arrives in Greece (1941) -The Battle of Giarabub, North Africa begins (1941) - The Battle for Giarabub, North Africa behins (1941) - First RAAF bomb in conflict since Vietnam dropped in Iraq (2003) - The Battle of the Somme, France begins (1918) - HMAS Kanimbla (II) captures an Iraqi minelayer in the Northern Arabian Gulf with 68 mines on board; the crew are made prisoners of war (2003) - Personnel of Australian Army Nursing Service are given Army ranks (1943) - The captain Cook graving docks at Garden Island, Sydeny, was opened by the Governor-General, the duke of Gloucester (1945) - Sir Frederick Scherger is the first RAAF officer to be promoted to Air Chief Marshal (1965) - The First battle of Gaza, Palestine begins (1917) - The Battle of Dernancourt, France begins (1918) - The Battle of Matapan begin (1941) - The HMAS Rankin was commissioned (2003 - Two Flying Training School are formed in East Sale (1952) - The Australian Air Force was formed (1921) - 0
0 - The First Citizen Air Force was formed (1948) - A Sopwith Baby seaplane is embarked in HMAS Brisbane (I) at Colombo (Ceylon/Sri Lanka) for aerial surveillance duties in the Indian Ocean. Although only on board for a few weeks this was the RAN’s first use of aircraft at sea. (1917 - United States Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird announces that the United States will start to "Vietnamize" the war effort which involves training and equipping South Vietnam units while US units are withdrawal (1969) - Federal Government announces the relocation of defense Administration from Melbourne to Canberra (1957) - The Battle of Ancre, France begins (1918) - Government amends the Defense Act to enable conscripts to serve in combat Operation in time when neither war nor Defense emergency has been declared (1956) - The Victorian cross was awarded to CAPT JE Newland and LT PV Storkey in France (1917) - The defense of Tobruk, Libya begins (1941) - The Battle for Haiwain River, PNG begins (1945) - The Battle for Mt Olympus, Greece begins (1941) - The first battle for Bullecourt, France begins (1917) - The Battle for Hazebrouck, France begins (1918) - The Battle for for Bogadjum, PNG begin (1944) - The Australian instructional Corps formed from the administration & Instructional Staff (1921) - C Coy 3 RAR captured Hill 'Salmon' in Korea (1951) - Australian Bicentennial Royal Guard mounted duty at Windsor Castle (1988) - The Battle of Kemmel, Belgium begins (1918) - The First National Service troops emplaned for South Vietnam (1966) - The first message is received from Australian guerillas operating in Timor (1942) - The 'Half Flight' of the AFC embarked for service in Mesopotamia (1915) - The HMAS Hobart is awarded a US Navy Unit commendation for service in Vietnam (1969) - The Battle of Mubo, PNG begins (1943) - The "Kanga Force" is formed for guerilla ops in PNG (1942) - The HMVS Victoria sails for the Maori war in NZ, Australia's first commitment of forces overseas (1860) - The Gallipoli landings begin (1915) - A nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, creating the world's worst nuclear disaster (1986) - 75 Sqn Hornets fly last combat operation over Baghdad in Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003) -The first battle for Kirthia, Gallipoli begins (1915) - The Central Flying School is formed (1940) - The Battle of the Salient, North Africa begins (1941) - 0
0 - WRAAF and RAAF Nursing Service are fully integrated in the Air Force (1977) - RAAF Base Garbutt, Townsville is established (1939) - Queen Elizabeth unveiled Air Forces' Memorial at Malta (1954) - 1 ATF arrived at Vung Tau, South Vietnam (1966) - HMAS Westralia (II) caught fire off the coast of Western Australia. Four sailors lost their lives (1998) - On the island of Corregidor, the last American forces in the Philippines surrender to the Japanese (1942) - 'M' special force formed to conduct special ops in PNG (1945) - The Battle for Wewak, PNG begins (1945) - The RAN aircraft carrier, Hams Melbourne (II) berthed at Sydney on completion of her maiden voyage from England to Australia (1956) - Battle of Quinn’s post, Gallipoli begins (1915) - HMA ships Swan (II) and Dubbo provide fire support during the Wewak amphibious landings and effectively silence the Japanese opposition (1945) - The Battle of Fire support Base ‘Coral’ in South Vietnam begins (1968) - The Voluntary Aid Detachments is disbanded (1965) - The Australian Hospital ship Centaur is sunk near the east coast of Australia by a Japanese submarine (1943) - The RAAF School of languages is reformed at Point Cook, Victoria (1950) - The Victorian Cross is awarded to LT FW Bell 6 WAMI, South Africa (1901) - The Battle of Commando Road, Bougainville begins (1945) - The Headquarters Combat Support Group is formed in Amberly, QLD (1996) - The Battle of ANZAC, Gallipoli begins (1915) - The Battle of Heraklion and Retimo, Crete begins (1941) - Warning Order is issued to 1 RAR for Op Morris Dance, Fiji coup (1987) - The 4 RAR arrives in South Vietnam, the last Aust Bn to serve in conflict (1971) - Orders are issued to 1 Aust corps to seize and occupy Balikpapan on Borneo (1945) - The Battle of Fire Support Base Coral-Balmoral, South Vietnam begins (1969) - RAAF transport deliver new peacekeeping force to Timor Leste (2006) - “A” Siege Battery formed from Royal Australian Garrison Artillery to serve with the AIF in France/Belgium. This was the only Australian Permanent Military force unit to serve in the AIF (1915) - The “Vung Tau Ferry”, HMAS Sydney(III), depart Sydney for her first voyage to Vietnam (1985) - AATTV is awarded is US Meritorious Unit Citation (1970) - Action at Witwatersrand, South Africa 1st & 2nd VMR (1900) - Government announces females will be accepted in all Army employments except for infantry, artillery, armor and combat engineers (1990) - The treaty ending the Boer War is signed in Pretoria, South Africa (1902) - 0
0 - The HMAS Kuttabul is sunk during the Japanese midget submarine attack on Sydney Harbour (1942) - The Battle of Hari River, Bougainville begins (1945) - The HMAS Melbourne and USS Frank E. Evans collide in the South China during an exercise (1969) - 2 Sqn departs South Vietnam (1971) - The Australian Army conduct their first operation in France (1916) - The Battle of Binh - Ba, South Vietnam begins (1969) - The Battle of Bonis - Porton, Bougainville begin (1945) - The 7th Diversion spearhead invasion of Vichy France controlled Syria, Middle East (1941) - The Battle of the Litani River, Syria begins (1941) - The HMAS Jervis Bay (III) is commissioned - The HMAS Wallaroo sinks following collision with American liberty ship off the coast of Western Australia (1943) - Two 5 AVN Regt Blackhawk helicopters collided at High Range (1996) - The battle of Sidon, Syria begins (1941) - The Battle of Jezzine, Syria begins (1941) - The HMAS Nestor is bombed in the Mediterranean, the ship was scuttled the following day (1942) - State of Emergency is declared in Malaya (1948) - RAAF Base Amberley is established (1940) - The Australian PoWs are released at Panmunjon, Korea (1953) - The battle for Wadi Zieni, Syria begins (1941) - The AWAS is disbanded (1947) - Damascus, Syria fell to allies’ forces (1941) - The Battle for Dimas, Syria begins (1941) - HQ 1 ASLG opened in Vung Tau, South Vietnam (1968) - The HMAS Armidale (II) is commissioned (2005) - North Korea People’s Army crossed border into South Korea beginning the Korean War (1950) - The Battle for Mivo River, Bougainville begins (1945) - The RMC is officially opened by the Governor General (1911) - HMAS Perth (1) conducts a bombardment of the Vichy French Town of Damour in Syria. Perth was one of the few RAN units to fight ‘All the kings’ enemies’ in World War 2 which included Germany, Italy, Vichy France and Japan (1941) - During the Korea War, U.S. President Harry S. Truman authorizes a sea blockade of Korea (1950) - The Battle of Nassau Bay, PNG begins (1943) - 0
0 The Information Warfare Wing is formed at Edinburgh, SA (1943) - The Battle for Mivo Ford, Bougainville begins (1945) - The Royal Navy attacks the French naval squadron in Algeria, to ensure that it will not fall under German control. Of the four French battleships present, one is sunk, two are damaged, and one escapes back to France (1940) - The Battle for Hamel, France begins (1918) - An Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily (1943) - HMAS Pioneer participate in a bombardment of the German cruiser Konigsberg hiding in the Rufigi Reiver, German Est Africa (1915) - 77 SQN killed in action over South Korea, the first Australian casualty of the Korean war (1950) - 2 & 13 Sqn awarded US presidential Unit Citation (1943) - The battle of Calabria begins (1940)- Commonwealth Naval Forces granted the title Royal Australian Navy (1911) - 808 squadron is re-commissioned (2013) - Malayan Emergency declared at an end (1960) - 10Bde took the town of Merris, France (1918) - Queen Victoria signed an order creating the first Australian national military unit when the Permanent Artillery Units of some of the Australian colonies were formed into the Royal Australian Artillery (1899) - Anniversary of Commissioning of the HMAS Albany (2006) - The Battle of Mount Tambu, PNG begins (1943) - The Victorian Cross is awarded to LT AC Borella in France (1918) - The 86 Wing is formed at Schofields NSW (1946) - The second battle of Fromelles, Frances begins (1916) - The Battle of the Marne, France begins (1918) - The Battle of Sanyet el Miteirrya, North Africa begins (1969) - The Battle of Kokoda Trail, PNG begins (1942) - The Battle of Pozieres, France begins (1916) - The Battle of the Samichon, Korea begins (1953) - The Battle of Kokoda-Deniki, PNG begins (1942) - The Battle of Quattara Trck, North Africa begins (1942) - The Korea War ceasefire agreement is signed at Panmunjom, Korea (1953) - The Victorian cross is awarded to SGT CC Castleton in France (1916) - Govt announced plan to establish force of regular troops to defend Darwin - the Darwin Mobile Force (first Australian regular field force) (1938) -
State of Eergency is lifted in Malaya (1960) - The Third Battle of Ypres, Belgium begins (1917) - 0
0 - The Surveillance and Control Training Unit is formed at Williamtown, NSW (1999) - The 1 Recruit training Unit is formed at Richmond, NSW (1954) - Former RAAF Warrant Officer Harold Allie appointed as the first Air Force Indigenous Elder (2012) - Great Britain declared war on Germany and as a result Australia is at war as well (1914) - New RAAF Base Scherger opened near Weipa, QLD (1988) - The South Australian Warship Protector sails for Boxer Rebellion under the command of Captain William Rooke Creswell (1900) - The Battle of Nek, Gallipoli begins (1915) - The Battle of Amiens, France begins (1918) - OP CORACLE mounted with Australian engineers assisting the clearance of mines in Mozambique (1994) - Recruitment for the Australia Imperial Force (AIF) begins (1914) - Recruiting for the AIF begins (1914) - The Malaysian-Indonesian 'Confrontation' ends (1966) - General Monasgh knighted in the field by King George V, the first time this distinction has occurred for nearly 200 years (1918) - HMA Ships Adelaide (II) and Darwin departed Sydney for the RAN's first deployment to the Northern Arabian Gulf in the wake of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. They were joined by HMAS Success (II) the following day (1990) - RAAF Sabre first to break the sound barrier in Australia (1953) - Victory in the Pacific has been achieved (1945) - Heavy Viet Cong mortaring of ATF Base at Nui Dat resulted in 24 wounded (1966) - Last RAFF Canberra bombing strike of the Malayan Emergency (1959) - The Battle of Long Tan, South Vietnam begins(1967) - Australian Relief force arrives at Tobruk (1941) - Main body of Australian contingent to UNAMIR II arrive in Kigali, Rwanda. (1994) - Japan Forces on Ambon, Indonesia surrender (1945) - Twelve nations sign the First Geneva Convention, establishing the rules of protection of the victims of armed conflicts (1864) - Victoria Cross is awarded to LT WD Joynt and LT LD McCarthy in France (1918) - The order from Queen Victoria authorising the formation of RAA came in effect, nearly 2 ½ years before Federation (1899) - Japanese mount amphibious operation against Milne Bay (1942) - The Battle of Milne Bay begins (1942) - Japanese forces evacuate New Georgia Island in the Pacific Theater of Operations (1943) - HMAS Perth is awarded US Navy meritorious Unit Commendation for service in Vietnam (1970) - HMAS Arunta(I) sinks the Japanese submarine RO-33 off Port Moresby (1942) - The Battle of Alam el Halfa, North Africa begins (1942) - The Battle of Mont St Quentin, France begins (1918) - 0
0 - ANZUS Treaty is signed (1951) - General Sir Thomas Blamey signs the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, for Australia, aboard USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay (1945) - Australia declares itself at war with the Axis Powers (1939) - RAAF Caribou is hijacked by armed soldiers fleeing war in Portuguese Timor (1975) - MINURSO is formed to monitor the ceasefire between Western Sahara and Morocco, the Australian Army provided a communications contingent (1991) - RAAF perform operations to evacuate UN and foreign nationals from East Timor (1999) - Beaufort bombers of No 100 Squadron made first RAAF torpedo attack (1942) - Australia signed the Manila Treaty to form a military alliance with France, US, UK, NZ, Philippines, Pakistan and Thailand; known as SEATO (1954) - General Blamey accept the surrender of LT General Fusataro Teshima, Commander of 11th Japanese Army, at Morotai, ending Australian military operation s for WW2 (1954) - HMA Parramatta(I) and Yarra(I) are commissioned at Greenock, Scotland as the first for the Commonwealth Naval Forces (later the RAN) (1910) - The battle for Lae Road, PNG begins (1943) - Three RAAF squadrons were presented with Standards. These were the first Squadron Standards awarded to any RAAF units (1957) - The corvette HMAS Warranambool sink during post war Great Barrier Reef minesweeping operations (1947) - Fist Australian peacekeepers take up UN duties in Indonesia (1947) - The Australian Government announce formation of Second AIF of 20,000 men for overseas service (1939) - Troops from 7 & 9 Division capture Lae, PNG (1943) - Advance party of 3 RAR arrive in Korea (1950) - Battle of Epehy, France begins (1918) - 2/6 IND Coy capture and held Kaiapit in the Markham Valley (1943) - The International Force East Timor lands in East Timor (1999) - 11 Squadron is formed at Richmond, NSW (1939) - The HMAS Launceston (III) is commissioned (2007) - The Battle for Bumi River, PNG begins (1943) - Representatives of 71 nations including Australia sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the United Nations (1996) - Peace talks begin between the Solomon Islands’ warring factions conducted aboard HMAS Newcastle (2000) - The Battle for Polygon Wood, Belgium begins (1917) - The Battle of the Hindenburg Line, France begins (1918) - The first aerial circumnavigation is completed by a team from the US Army (1924) - The Battle of St Quentin Canal, France begins (1918) - At the Battle of Bellecourt (part of the Battle of the Hindenburg Line) PTE EA Corey, stretcher bear with 66 Bn, win a third bar to his Military Medal thus becoming the soldier to be awarded the MM four times (1918) - 0
0 - Damascus, Syria has been captured (1918) - Finschhafen, PNG has been captured (1943) - The battle for Kowang-San, Korea begins (1951) - The Australian Fleet Unit arrivals in Sydney (1913) - The battle for Maryang-San, Korea begins (1951) - The battle for Shaggy Ridge, PNG begins (1943) - The 2/17 Bn withstood concerted Japanese attempt to drive 9 Div back in the sea at Scarlet Beach. PNG (1943) - At Arawa, Bougainville, ADF personnel, together with Tongan, Fijian and Vanuatan troops, landed as part of Operation LAGOON. The force was support by HMA ships Success and Tobruk. (1994) - The Battle of Poelcappelle, Belgium begins (1917) - The Treaty of Versailles is signed, marking the end of WW1 (1919) - The German steam yacht Komet is captured in New Guinea by the RAN. She is recommissioned in the RAN as HMAS Una. (1914) - The Boer War begins (1899) - RAAF C-130s begin medivac of victims of the Bali bombing (2002) - 3 RAR suffers its first casualties of the Korean War (1950) - HMAS Brisbane (II) arrive back in Australia from Vietnam, the last RAN destroyer to serve on the gunline marking the end of the RAN’s combat role in the Vietnam War (1971) - Royal Australian Navy Helicopter Flight Vietnam integrated with the US Army 135th Assault Helicopter Company in South Vietnam (1967) - Prime Ministerial announcement of Australia’s commitment War of Terrorism, Operation SLIPPER. (2001) - The Battle of Siki Cover. PNG begins (1943) - The 7 Division sail for the Middle East (1940) - The first Australian troops arrive in Somalia (1992) - The heavy cruiser HMAS Australia (II) is struck by a kamikaze aircraft at the battle of Leute Gulf, Philippines and suffers heavy casualties (1944) - The Battle of Yongyu, Korea begins (1950) -The Battle of El Alamein, North Africa begins (1942) - The United Nations Charter comes into effect (1945) - The Battle pf Chonju, Korea begins (1950) - The Second Battle of Passchendaele begins (1917) - The Term “Australian Army” replaces “Australian Military Forces” (1969) - The British satellite Prospero X-3 was launched into space from Woomera, South Australia, making Britain the seventh country with a satellite (1971) - Australian Troops engaged Indonesian soldiers in combat for the first time in South Malacca (1964) - The separate service departments and the Department of Supply formally amalgamated in the Department of Defense (1973) - The Battle of Beersheba, Israel begins (1917) - 0
0 -The first ANZAC convoys comprising 38 transports, depart Albany for Egypt escorted by HMA Ships Sydney, Melbourne, HMAS Minotaur and HIJMS Ibuki (1914) - Kokoda is recaptured, PNMG (1942) -Chief of Air Staff, Sir Richard Williams, reaches Tulagi on an epic international flight to Solomon Islands (1926) - The Battle of Pakchon, Korea begins (1950) - British and Australian forces from the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade successfully halted the advancing Chinese 117th Division during the Battle of Pakchon (1950) - Australian voters decided to keep the queen and not become a republic (1999) - Third Battle of Gaza, Palestine begins (1917) - United States Air Force Lt. Russell J. Brown, while piloting an F-80 Shooting Star, shoots down two North Korean MiG-15s in the first jet aircraft-to-jet aircraft dogfight in history (1950) - HMAS Sydney destroys German cruiser SMS Emden at the Coco’s Islands; this is the RAN’s first ship to ship action at sea (1914) - The Government announced conscription was to be enacted for expansion of the Army (1964) - Remembrances Day, The Armistice that came into effect at 1100 ended World War 1 (1918) - Nazi Germany uses a referendum to ratify its withdrawal from the League of Nations. (1933) - The Battle of El Mughar, Palestine begins (1917) - The Battle of Ia Drang, Vietnam begins (1965) - Airlift began of emergency food supplies for Cambodia (1979) - The Battle for Buna-Gona, PNG (1942) - The Battle of Sattelberg, PNG begins (1943) - The Battle of Tobruk, Libya begins (1941) - First Battle of the Somme, France. British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle which started earlier on July 1st (1916) - The RAN suffered its first ship loss of World War 2 when HMAS Goorangai was lost with all 24 hands when she collided with the coastal liner, MV Duntroon, in Port Phillip Bay (1940) - The German High Seas Fleet surrendered to the Allies in the Firth of forth, Scotland Present were HMA Ships Australia, leading the British port line and the cruisers HMA Ships Melbourne and Sydney (1918) - The Summer Olympics, officially known as the games of the XVI Olympiad, are opened in Melbourne, Australia (1956) - Admiral Sir Victor Smith is appointed as the Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, becoming the first RAN college graduate to command the ADF (1970) - The 73rd Bombardment Wing launches the first attack on Tokyo from the Northern Mariana Islands. (1944) - After 42 days of fighting, the Battle of Triangle Hill, Korea ends in a Chinese victory. American and South Korean units abandon their attempt to capture the "Iron Triangle" (1952) - “Battle of Brisbane” begins between Australian and US Serviceman (1942) - HMAS Parramatta (II) was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U559 off Tobruk (1941) - HMAS Adelaide intercepted the German blockade runner Ramses and opened fire. Ramses’s crew abandon ship and scuttled her (1942) - The Battle of Gusika, PNG begins (1943) - White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler tells the press that there will be no more public announcements concerning American troop withdrawals from Vietnam because troop levels are now down to 27,000 (1972) - 0